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On this Wiki page the previous class has started a historical timeline of the individuals and CT scanner developments that have shaped the field of CT we have today. To earn bonus points you need to add a new historical individual or scanner development or edit a previous post by adding new material. Please add rows as necessary to keep the timeline in the order of earliest to latest date. The posting must be referenced to obtain points. Remember to emal the instructor and briefly summarize the change you made to the WIki to obtain points.

  1. Add a new historical individual or CT scanner development. 
  2. Edit a previous post, adding new material or fixing an error.
  3. Add an image of the individual or scanner to historical events listed. 

____________________________________________________________________________

Date

Historical Event

 

1895


1896

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered x-ray.  No CT scan would have ever happened without the disocovery of x-ray.

F.H. Williams succeeds in taking the first chest X-ray in Boston, and Carl Schleussner develops the first silver bromide coated photographic X-ray plates in Frankfurt a. Main, Germany
http://www.medical.siemens.com/siemens/zh_C /gg_ct_FBAs/files/brochures/CT_History_and_Technology.pdf

 

1903





1917

E.A.O. Pasche builds a collimator for suppressing scattered radiation.
[http://www.medical.siemens.com/siemens/zh_CN/gg_ct_FBAs/files/brochures/CT_History_and_Technology.pdf
]
Johann Radon proved it possible to reconstruct or build up an image of a two- or three- dimensional object from a large number of projections from different locations. The mathematical basis for tomographic imaging was laid down by Radon
.
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Johann_Radon.jpeg commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Johann_Radon.jpeg)

Radon applied the calculus of variations to differential geometry, which led to applications in number theory. It was while he was studying applications of the calculus of variations to differential geometry that he discovered curves which are now named Radon curves. His best known results involve combining the integration theories of Lebesgue and Stieltjes which first appeared in his habilitation dissertation
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Radon.html

 

1927

Neurologist Dr Moniz performs the first cerebral angiogram.  http://www.asnweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3334, http://www.uic.edu/depts/mcne/founders/page0064.html
!DR.jpg

 

 

1931

Stratiography:
Allesandro Vallebona, pioneering Italian tomographer, came up with idea and implemented Stratiography which was new X-ray technology that helped to lead to computed tomography. In Stratiography the xray source and the film detector are fixed to a pendulum so that they are perpendicular to the pendulum and parallel to each other no matter what way they are oriented. His technology is very similar to tomography but some of his theories about it were incorrect. His intention of this invention was that the plane normal to the pendulum remain in focus no matter what. It was shown, however, that if the pendulum moves in one place than only a line remains in focus, and if the pendulum swings about in a circular fashion centered around a point then only the point around which it circles will remain in focus. Vallebona later fashioned more sophisticated equipment but the ideas used in the first stratiograph led to the development of computed tomography. http://books.google.com/books?id=1Ikv7Y2a_8sC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=alessandro+vallebona&source=bl&ots=c2gdlZpGko&sig=PSDWb8-761bDt2yoZUOiylgZGV8&hl=en&ei=PwR8TLfIHZOasAPsqIWDBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=15&ved=0CEwQ6AEwDg#v=onepage&q=alessandro%20vallebona&f=false From the Watching of the Shadows: The Origins of Radiological Tomography. By Steve Webb

 

1935

Grossman refined the term "Tomography" which comes from the Greek tomos, meaning "section". Euclid Seeram, "Computed Tomography" Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control  Third Edition; Copyright 2009

A conventional tomogram is an image of a section of the patient that is oriented parallel to the film.
Source: Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009. 2. Print

Terms used previous to Grossman's refining included "body section radiography" and "stratigraphy." Stratigraphy comes from the word stratum which means layer.
Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. 3rd edition. Saunders Elsevier.

 

1937

Watson developed tomographic technique in which the sections were transverse sections (cross-sections). It was referred to as transverse axial tomography. Euclid Seeram, "Computed Tomography" Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control  Third Edition; Copyright 2009

These images were not useful in diagnostic radiology because they lacked enough detail and clarity. Euclid Seeram, "Computed Tomography" Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control Third Edition; Copyright 2009

 

1950's

Godfrey N. Housfeild begins work as a researcher at EMI. He worked in the computer business until 1962, when EMI signed The Beatles. Their massive success, and his good-standing with the company, led him to conduct his own private research, thus inventing the CT Scanner.  http://news.cnet.com/8301-13526_3-9995690-27.html

 

1955

Computers were used to calculate radiation dose distributions in cancer patients, which subsequently led to the use of computers in radiology.  Radiology computer applications are now commonplace and fall into 2 categories:  imaging and nonimaging applications.  Source: Seeram, Euclid Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications and Quality Control Third edition, 2009

S. Moore

1956

Ronald Bracewell publishes paper mapping sunspots using a series of one-dimensional images to reconstruct a two-dimensional image using Fourier transform.
[http://www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development
]

Snively

1958

William Oldendorf builds a model CT scanner without a computer. http://www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development

Snively

1960s 


Hounsfield was working with computers on recognition of letters when he started thinking about other ways to reconstruct contents of a box from readings taken from different directions. After experimenting he found it was easier to reconstruct the box if you think of it in multiple slices versus the content as one whole volume. This subsequently led to an experiment with a matrix. He entered these numbers into a computer and reconstructed the matrix taking readings with another computer program. He was surprised at how accurately it was reconstructed and knew he had a potentially huge discovery on his hands. http://bjr.birjournals.org/cgi/content/full/79/937/5
Oldendorf applies for a patent for his model. www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development

 

1963

Allan Macleod Cormack publishes two papers in the journal of applied physics. These papers contained theoretical calculations which were turned into a real application that will help Hounsfield produce the first CT scanner. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_McLeod_Cormack 
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/489190/110294/Allan-MacLeod-Cormack

 

 

1966

David Kuhl publishes paper with the transmission images of a subject's thorax. www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development

Snively

 

1967

Bracewell reconstructs lunar images without using Fourier transforms. www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development

 

 

1968

EMI patents Godfrey Hounsfieild's method apparatus and the apparatus for scanning the body with X-rays. www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development

 

 

1971

The first clinical CT scanner was installed at Atkinson-Morley's Hospital

Euclid Seeram, "Computed Tomography" Physical Principals, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control Third Edition; Copyright 2009

The original 1971 prototype took 160 parallel readings through 180 angles, each 1° apart, with each scan taking a little over 5 minutes. The images from these scans took 2.5 hours to be processed by algebraic reconstruction techniques on a large computer. The scanner had a single photomultiplier detector, and operated on the Translate/Rotate principle                                      
                                                           
    The prototype CT scanner  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computed_tomography

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computed_tomography#History
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/RIMG0277.JPG

Hounsfield built a prototype head scanner and tested it first on a preserved human brain, then on a fresh cow brain from a butcher shop, and later on himself. In September 1971, CT scanning was introduced into medical practice with a successful scan on a cerebral cyst patient at Atkinson-Morley's Hospital.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godfrey_Hounsfield
http://www.nndb.com/people/500/000131107/

Photo added by S. Moore

1971

Dr. James Ambrose joined Hounsfield's early study of an apparatus used to produce Xray that would pass from all directions through an object to obtain information on the internal structures which could then be represented in 3D. Ambrose was a consultant radiologist at Atkinson-Morley's Hospital. Ambrose and Hounsfield conducted experienments with this apparatus using brain tissue and kidney samples. In these experiements tumors were able to be distinquished from normal brain tissue. Under Ambrose's direction the first clinical prototype CT brain scanner was installed.
Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. 3rd edition. Saunders Elsevier.

Dr. James Ambrose. Blackwell: The Knowledge Retailer. <http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/promo/umh.jsp?action=more&id=14>

Interestingly, Dr James Ambrose recalls that he received a call from an old acquaintance, Dr Evan Lennon then principal medical officer in Radiology at the Department of Health, asking if he would see a man called "Godfrey Hounsfield" and listen to him. Lennon had found him confusing but was reluctant to dismiss him as a crank (Ambrose later learnt that other eminent radiologists had already dismissed him as a crank!). Ambrose recalls that when he and his senior physicist Dr John Perry met Hounsfield, the conversation was difficult. Hounsfield would only say that the method was fundamentally different from other methods of X-ray imaging, more efficient in photon usage and likely to be more sensitive to small density variations. So Dr. Ambrose wasn't interested in collaborating at first with Hounsfield!
http://bjr.birjournals.org/cgi/content/full/79/937/5

 

1972

A woman with a brain lesion was the first patient to be scanned by the EMI Mark 1 scanner. The noticable cyst which showed up as a dark spot on her brain, proved the machine's ability. Dr. Hounsfield was later awarded the McRobert Award.

Euclid Seeram, "Computed Tomography" Physical Principals, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control Third Edition; Copyright 2009


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Emi1010.jpg


A water bag was placed so that it surrounded the woman's head in order to reduce the range of intensities received by the detector.
http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~gzy/pub/hounsfield.pdf

The first CT scanner demonstrated in the United States. www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development

 

1973

The first description of Hounsfield's Computerized Transverse Axial Scanning (tomography) technique was published in the British Journal of Radiology.
Euclid Seeram, "Computed Tomography" Physical Principals, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control Third Edition; Copyright 2009

 

1973

William Oldendorf brings polaroids of CT images done at EMI to the Los Angeles Neurological Society, yet his efforts receive little interest.   http://www.asnweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3334
Also becomes a founding member of the American Society of Neuroimaging and originator of the technique of computed tomography. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Oldendorf

 

1974

Dr. Robert Ledley, a professor at Georgetown University of radiology, physiology, and biophysics developed the first whole-body CT scanner
Source: Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009. 9. Print. 

He would be inducted into the Inventors Hall of Fame and is currently the president of the National Biomedical Research Foundation at Georgetown University Medical Center.
Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009.
http://pir.georgetown.edu/nbrf/rslbio.html

http://images.the-scientist.com/content/figures/images/yr1997/june/jun_art/ledley.jpg

 

1974

A fourth-generation CT system was developed.  Fourth-generation CT systems employ a stationary detector ring and a rotating x-ray tube.  The anatomy to be scanned is placed within the circle of detectors and is irradiated by a wide fan beam.

Euclid Seeram. (2009) Computed Tomography" Physical Priciples, Clinical Application, and Quality Control. (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier.
Basics of Computed Tomography. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing.  Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.asnt.org/publications/materialseval/basics/may00basics/may00basics.htm 
http://www.asnt.org/publications/materialseval/basics/may00basics/may00basics.htm.


Figure (d) represents the 4th generation CT scanner.
Source:

http://www.asnt.org/publications/materialseval/basics/may00basics/may00basfig1.htm#figure3

border=1!Sketches illustrating the evolution of CT scan geometries, each a distinct generation of instrumentation; (a) first generation single pencil beam translate/rotate scanner; (b) second generation multiple pencil beam translate/rotate scanner; (c) third generation rotate/rotate fan beam scanner; (d) fourth generation rotate/stationary inverted fan beam scanner; (e) fifth generation cone beam cylindrical scanner.
Source:
[http://www.asnt.org/publications/materialseval/basics/may00basics/may00basfig1.htm#figure3
]

 

1975

Original axial CT image from the dedicated Siretom CT scanner circa 1975. This image is a coarse 128 x 128 matrix; however, in 1975 physicians were fascinated by the ability to see the soft tissue structures of the brain, including the black ventricles for the first time (enlarged in this patient) (Courtesy: Siemens Medical Solutions)  http://www.imaginis.com/ct-scan/brief-history-of-ct

 

 

 

 

1975

The dynamic spatial reconstructor (DSR) was installed in the biodynamics unit at the Mayo Clinic. The goal of the DSR was to carry out dynamic volume scanning to accommodate imaging of the dynamic of organ system and the functional aspects of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems with high temporal resolution as well as imaging anatomic details (Ritman et al, 1991; Robb and Morin, 1991). Research on this unit has since been discontinued.

Euclid Seeram. (2009) Computed Tomography" Physical Priciples, Clinical Application, and Quality Control. (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier.

Second gerneration Delta CT scanners are marketed
GEs third generation CT scanners are marketed.
www.wikiradiography.com/page/CT+History+%26+Development

J. Roggow

 

 

 

1976

 OPTI X-ray tube with high heat capacity: 1.0 MHU 5 s scan time Whole body CT   http://www.medical.siemens.com/siemens/zh_CN/gg_ct_FBAs/files/brochures/CT_History_and_Technology.pdf

 

1979

In the U.S., the first installation was at the Mayo Clinic. As a tribute to the impact of this system on medical imaging the Mayo Clinic has an EMI scanner on display in the Radiology Department. Allan MacLeod Cormack of Tufts University in Massachusetts independently invented a similar process, and both Hounsfield and Cormack shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computed_tomography
]
Dr. Hounsfield and Allen MacLeod Cormack shared the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology.
Source: (Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009)

 

1983

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the Electron Beam Computed Tomography (EBCT) scanner.
Source:
Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009. 11. Print.

 

mid 1980s

A high-speed CT scanner was introduced that used electron beam technology, work done by Dr. Douglas Boyd and collegues during late 1970s.  It was invented to image the cariovascular system without artifacts caused by motion.  They called the scanner, at that time, cardiovascular CT scanner.
(Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009)

 

1989

The first report of a practical spiral CT scanner was presented at the Radiologic Society of North America (RSNA) meeting in Chicago by Dr. Willi Kalender.

Euclid Seeram. (2009) Computed Tomography" Physical Priciples, Clinical Application, and Quality Control. (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier.

The first sprial CT scanner was a Siemens SOMATOM Plus System. The technology is still widely used today (2010) and triggered a constant succession of CT innovations.
http://www.medical.siemens.com/siemens/zh_CN/gg_ct_FBAs/files/brochures/CT_History_and_Technology.pdf

J. Roggow

1990

Dr. Robert Ledley, was inducted into the National Inventors' Hall of Fame for the invention of teh automatic computed transverse axial CT scanner. Euclid Seeram. (2009) Computed Tomography" Physical Priciples, Clinical Application, and Quality Control. (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier.

 

1993

The matrix size of CT images had grown to 1024x1024, it was previously 80x80 in 1972.
Source: (Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009)

 

1996

The U.S. FDA approved realtime CT fluoroscopy, as a clinical tool for use in radiology.  CT fluoro allows for reconstruction.
(http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1835633-treatment) Source: Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009.

 

1997

The National Medal of Technology
-- awarded by the President of the United States of America to Robert S. Ledley for pioneering contributions to biomedical computing and engineering, including inventing the whole-body CT scanner which revolutionized the practice of radiology and for his role in developing automated chromosome analysis for prenatal diagnosis of birth defects.

[http://pir.georgetown.edu/nbrf/rslbio.html
http://www.nyu.edu/dental/nexus/images/fall2000/ledley.jpg (Picture of Ledley)

J. Roggow

1998

Multislice scanners were introduced. They use a series of multiple detectors, increasing the speed at which volume can be scanned in comparison to single slices or dual slice scanners.

Euclid Seeram, "Computed Tomography" Physical Principals, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control Third Edition; Copyright 2009


    Source: www.google.com/images 

 

2000

The PET/CT scanner, attributed to Dr David Townsend and Dr Nutt was named by TIME Magazine as the medical invention of the year in 2000.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positron_emission_tomography#History

PET/CT combines in one single study the functional information of PET with the anatomical information provided by a CT scan. This PET/CT information will enable your physician to pinpoint the exact location of interest and helps in making an accurate diagnosis.  The Siemens Biograph PET/CT is used to diagnose and stage cancers, and can help monitor the effectiveness of treatment for each patient. PET/CT can also perform perfusion and viability studies of the heart, as well as advanced neuro imaging for disorders of the brain such as Alzheimer’s disease.
www.nepetimaging.com/pet-ct.htmlCopyright  © 2001-2010 New England PET Imaging System http://www.itriagehealth.com/wl/procedure/pet-ct-scan-(positron-emission-tomography-and-computed-tomography)#wrapperTop

 

2002

In December 2002, Dr. Allen MacLeod Cormack was granted the Order of Mapugubew. This is South Africa's highest honor. He received this award for his contribution to the invention of the CT scanner.
Source: (Seeram, Euclid. Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009)
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/18/68918-003-9177BE6F.gif

 

2004

A 256-slice prototype CT scanner was undergoing clinical tests.   Source:  Seeram, Euclid Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications, and Quality Control.  3rd edition 2009

S. Moore

2005

The second 64-slice computed tomography scanner ever produced by Philips Medical Imaging, and the first to reach the United States, has been installed and is now in clinical use at the University of Chicago Hospitals.  The scanner, which has four times as many detectors as a typical multi-detector CT scanner, combines unrivaled image quality with remarkable speed.  It can produce detailed pictures of any organ in a few seconds and provide sharp, clear, three-dimensional images, including 3-D views of the blood vessels.  At that rate, a 64-slice scanner can gather a high-resolution image of a heart, brain or a pair of lungs in about five seconds.  A scan of the whole body, (in search of a blood clot, for example, that has become a source of emboli) takes about 30 seconds.  The scanners are beginning to have an impact on cancer diagnosis and treatment as well. Nearly 60 percent of CT scans at the University of Chicago Hospitals are done for cancer.
www.medgadget.com/archives/2005/04/brilliance_64sl.html© 2004---2010 Medgadget LLC.



 

Source:  emedicine.medscape.com/article/1603072-overview

 

2005

Siemens introduced the SOMATOM.  It is a Dual source CT Scanner that features two x-ray tubes and two detectors. It gives much less dose to patients because fast speed of the scan.  Dose savings can be up to 50 percent compared to a single source CT.
https://www.med.usa.siemens.com/stroke/pdfs/stroke_reducingradiationdosesessions !images.jpg

 

border=1!http://www.mh.org.au/royal_melbourne_hospital/computed-tomography-ct/w1/i1019624/

border=1,width=285,height=226!http://www.mh.org.au/royal_melbourne_hospital/computed-tomography-ct/w1/i1019624/

border=1,width=235,height=136!http://www.mh.org.au/royal_melbourne_hospital/computed-tomography-ct/w1/i1019624/

 

2007

Computer-assisted detection computed tomography (CAD CT) can reduce perceptual errors by radiologists, enhancing visualization provided by conventional CT and allowing the detection of flat lesions in the colon.www.medscape.com/viewarticle/566633http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/566633  Medscape Medical News © 2007

 

2008

Siemens develops the SOMATOM Definition Flash. This CT scanner set new standards regarding speed and dose reduction. The system required only a fraction of the radiation dose that systems previously required to scan even the tiniest anatomical details faster than ever before. The SOMATOM Definition Flash is a dual-source CT from Siemens, featuring two X-ray tubes that simultaneously revolve around the patient's body. The fastest scanning speed in CT (i.e., 43 cm/s) and a temporal resolution of 75 ms, enabled complete scans of the entire chest region in just 0.6 seconds.  Patients are no longer required to hold their breath during the exam the way they had in the past. At the same time, the SOMATOM Definition Flash operates at an extremely reduced radiation dose. For example, a spiral heart scan can be performed with less than 1 millisievert (mSv), whereas the average effective dose required for this purpose usually ranges from 8 mSv to 40 mSv.
http://www.siemens.com/press/en/pressrelease/?press=/en/pressrelease/2008/imaging_it/him200811012.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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